Third-placed Jamaica Scorpions have made four changes to their 13-man squad ahead of their eight-round Digicel WICB Four-day Tournament clash against fifth-place Trinidad and Tobago Red Force in Port-of-Spain, starting on Friday.The three changes, however, appear to be forced.Three of the replacements are being done as a result of fast bowler Jerome Taylor, wicketkeeper Chadwick Walton and all-rounder Rovman Powell being drafted into the West Indies line-up for their opening Twenty20 fixtures against touring Pakistan.The fourth replacement, in the meantime, is as a result of opener Shacaya Thomas having passport issues.It is understood that the St Catherine opener, who disappointed with scores of two and six in the Scorpions’ horrendous 34-run loss to the Leeward Islands Hurricanes at Sabina Park last week, is awaiting a visa confirmation with an overseas embassy.Jamaica scored a record-low 56 in their first innings and 114 in their second in surrendering to the Leewards inside three days, one of which was abandoned due to rain and wet conditions.The replacement players are batsmen John Campbell, Trevon Griffith and Oraine Williams and fast bowling all-rounder Derval Green.Campbell, the team’s leading run-scorer, gets a recall after being dropped for the Leewards match due to a dip in form, while Griffith, after playing in the opening two matches, earns a recall.Williams, in the meantime, a former national Under-19 youth opener, and who scored a century in the final of the recent national 50-Overs tournament, earns his first senior team call-up.Green receives a recall after being overlooked for the Hurricanes tie.”Three of the players have already represented us, so I am looking forward to them making a return and make a contribution,” said Scorpions captain, Nikita Miller, prior to the departure of the team yesterday.FIRST SENIOR CALL-UP”As for Oraine, this is his first senior call-up, so if he gets an opportunity one would hope he grabs it with both hands.”Jamaica, who after winning three, drawing one and losing of their first five matches, which saw them sit atop of the points table, currently trails leader and two-time defending champions Guyana Jaguars, and the Barbados Pride.The Leewards are presently fourth, with the Windward Islands Volcanoes in the sixth and last position.The tournament is played over 10 rounds of matches.Jamaica Scorpions (from): Nikita Miller (captain), Jermaine Blackwood, Damion Jacobs, Brandon King, Andre McCarthy, Marquino Mindley, Paul Palmer Jr, Rovman Powell, Devon Thomas, Oraine Williams, John Campbell, Fabian Allen, and Derval Green.
Strengths: His knack for making plays (five touchdowns on 27 catches) comes with a unique, long stride that surprises cornerbacks.Weaknesses: His size and physicality required … Jimmy Garoppolo’s favored 2019 target will likely be George Kittle, unless NFL defenses have come up with an answer for the record-setting tight end.But the 49ers’ stable of “wideouts with real potential” hasn’t been this robust in recent memory.Here’s a rundown:DANTE PETTIS2nd year out of Washington
Click here if you’re unable to view the photo gallery on your mobile device. Raiders quarterback Derek Carr underwent precautionary x-rays on his lower left leg following Sunday’s 31-24 win in Indianapolis.Carr wasn’t limping after the game and his x-rays were reportedly “good” according to The Athletic, so he’ll get to face his old buddy Khalil Mack and the Bears in London next Sunday.Nothing official from team, but heard the results of Carr’s X-rays were good. On to London. https://t.co/Y …
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Manure is (and always has been) part of livestock production, but in recent years it has been increasingly viewed as an asset instead of a liability. Experts emphasize, however, that to get the full benefits and minimize the drawbacks of manure application for the benefit of all parties involved, planning and preparation are extremely important.“It has to be a sustainable operation for the applicator, the livestock producers and the crop producers,” said Eric Dresbach, president of W.D. Farms, LLC, during a presentation at the Conservation Tillage and Technology Conference in Ada this spring. “Everybody has to win and nobody can win big.”W.D. Farms handles manure management, including agitation and pumping, transportation and application, consulting and brokering, manure crises management, and trucking in a 200-mile radius around the Pickaway County operation. The goal for every job is to make sure everyone wins and Dresbach offered some tips on how to make that happen.“Communication solves problems. If you don’t talk about it we’re not going to fix it. Make sure biosecurity is being addressed. Is agitation needed? All of these things need to be figured out in March not in May when everyone is running 100 miles per hour,” he said. “What do I need as an applicator? How many gallons? What fields? When will manure storage be full? Who is paying? Cropping schedule? I need a current soil sample. That is another challenge. I need to identify roads and driveways that are to be used and talk about any concerns you may have ahead of time. Some places won’t let us work on weekends. Some places only want you to drive 15 miles per hour in the driveway. Are there tile blowouts? What tillage has been done? This is not just satisfying the regulatory people. It is about doing things right.”When W.D. Farms rolls onto a farm, a goal is to be as close to invisible as possible, but that takes extensive preparation ahead of time.“As an applicator you want to be invisible to the farm. Cities like me because I do my job and they hardly ever see me — no odors, no complaints,” Dresbach said. “We do not interfere with day-to-day operations of the farm. The crop farmer needs the applicator to provide even application, do no harm by not causing compaction, don’t make neighbors mad, and be low maintenance. Everyone needs to have realistic expectations and express them. We have a written contract and written responsibilities. Black and white beats ‘I think’ every single day. Don’t assume. The phones work in both directions. With communication and respect we can all be successful.”Once the basic plan is in place, the success of the job then depends on getting an accurate assessment of the situation, said Kevin Elder, chief of the Division of Livestock Environmental Permitting with Ohio Department of Agriculture.“Every manure is different. It agitates differently and different additives change the characteristics of the manure. We only require one sample a year per storage structure, but I would recommend a lot more than that to be efficient with the value of that manure. If you don’t have a good test, everything else will be junk. You’ll either underestimate and have yield losses or you could very easily over apply and have application violations,” Elder said. “Make sure you know what the crops and soils need as far as nutrients. That means soil tests and manure tests. If you don’t have a good idea what the soil and plants need and what you are applying, you are behind the 8-ball to start. Assumptions are not good. You should always use the Tri-State Fertility agronomic range for the crop.”The specifics of the application situation then become a priority.“Make sure you know the weather forecast is, what the soil condition is, and the available water holding capacity if it is a liquid manure,” Elder said. “A lot of times your limits may be the water-holding capacityEric Dresbach, president of W.D. Farms, LLC, gave a presentation bout manure management at the Conservation Tillage and Technology Conference in Ada this spring.of the soil at the time of application. A lot of our spills or discharges are because our soil is not able to hold onto what has been applied. There are charts in the NRCS 590 Conservation Practice Standard that tell you how much capacity the soil has to hold onto additional water. It gets down pretty quickly to around 5,000 gallons. You need to understand what those limits are. This is probably one of the most common sources of surface runoff or transmission to the tile.“You also need to know the setbacks and restrictions to apply the manure properly. Knowing setbacks and following them is one of the most important things to do to prevent discharge. Make sure you are aware of cracks in the soil and know if it is tiled and where the outlets are so you can look at those. You don’t want it running through macropores to the tile and you don’t want it running off the surface. It is not going to be using the nutrients the crops need if it is getting away from you. Usually, if you can keep the nutrients in place you’re not going to have problems with violating the law and penalties.”Once the manure application process is underway, the situation needs to be carefully monitored to ensure what is supposed to be happening is actually happening.“One example is double applying with a dragline when going around corners. You need to be aware of that. Maybe you need to change directions so you’re not running close to surface water when you’re making the turns,” Elder said. “We want to get the crop farmer, the livestock producers and the custom applicator to prepare and think through the process of what they need to do and what can go wrong.”Incorporation is a very useful practice for keeping the nutrients in the manure where they are supposed to be, Elder said.“What is incorporation? It means placement and mixing with the soil. If there is no surface movement of residue you can’t call it incorporation,” he said. “Manure is naturally very soluble. If water runs off it will carry that solution. If it is incorporated, it binds with the soil. Make sure it is incorporated.”And, Elder stressed, do not apply manure on frozen, snow covered ground.“Frozen snow covered ground — just don’t do it,” he said. “Application on a surface that cannot absorb those nutrients, which frozen snow covered ground is — that is probably the most likely chance of losing the nutrients and causing water pollution.”While there are plenty of challenges in appropriate, legal and efficient manure application, the benefits are worth the extra effort and there are plenty of positive examples of the right way to manage manure. Elder pointed out that there have been tremendous improvements across the board in Ohio’s manure management in recent years.“We have had a lot fewer problems, a lot fewer discharges, and a lot fewer complaints as we have gone through the years of training and improving manure management. We don’t have the same the situation we had 15 years ago. There is a lot better management,” he said. “But no one is going to be perfect. There will always be accidents. We try to take those things into account. That is part of why we train people to be prepared for those situations — repair any blowholes and use some common sense. Do something to stop it so the problem doesn’t continue. It is a lot easier to fix things first than to capture manure as it floats down the river. It is awful hard to contain that situation once it’s loose.”If anyone has questions concerning how to handle a situation or an emergency, Elder encourages people to contact the Ohio Department of Agriculture or email him firstname.lastname@example.org.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Garth Ruff, Extension Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ohio State University Extension, Henry CountyLow hay inventory this past winter combined with poor pasture stands due to excessive moisture have led to a greater proportion of thin beef cows both across the countryside and on the cull market. As we evaluate the toll that this past winter took on forage stands, especially alfalfa, hay is projected to be in short supply as we proceed into next winter as well.For a beef cow to be efficient and profitable, we must meet her nutritional requirements for maintenance in addition to those for reproduction and lactation. As a reminder, the hierarchy of nutrient use is as follows: maintenance, development, growth, lactation, reproduction, and fattening. This applies to all nutrient categories, not just to energy alone. As we conclude calving season, we are entering the most challenging time in production cycle when it comes to providing adequate nutrition. If the cow does not intake enough nutrients and is in suboptimal body condition at calving (BCS < 5), reproduction is the first to fail. With that in mind, one strategy available to minimize body condition and reproductive losses when forage is in short supply is to early wean calves.Early weaning is certainly not a new concept and is one that is often employed when forage availability is scarce. By shortening lactation and weaning calves earlier, a cow’s nutrient need above that of maintenance is greatly reduced. Keep in mind that we still need to provide enough nutrition to sustain the mechanisms of reproduction, estrus, implantation, and gestation.Many universities have researched the pros and cons of early weaning from a herd and systems-based management approach. Taking a deep dive into the archives of the Ohio Beef Letter, I found these “10 reasons to wean Calves at 205 days” written by Tom Turner in 1999. While these reasons are a bit tongue in cheek, there are also some good take home messages regarding herd management.Number 10: Calves that are weaned later in life are less likely to grade “choice” thus, being more attractive to the “high yield” type markets.Number 9: Seven month weaning instead weaning at 3 to 4 months keeps the stocking rates of pastures down, thus eliminating the need for carrying more cows.Number 8: Weaning at 7 months allows the calf to be hungry due to declining milk production by mamma, thus encouraging calves to consume more creep feed.Number 7: Weaning later will reduce early calf growth, thus allowing for more “compensatory” gain in the feedlot.Number 6: Weaning later keeps cows thinner and able to slip through gates and fences easier.Number 5: Later weaned calves will weigh less and as a result can be marketed later with everyone else’s calves.Number 4: Later weaned calves will weigh less and thus, should command more cents per pound than their heavier contemporaries.Number 3: Later weaned calves can be creep fed to boost weaning weights. Since the feed conversion of creep feed is not very good, later weaning utilizes more cheap Ohio corn.Number 2: Later weaning allows open cows to be culled in the fall with everyone else’s open cows.Number 1: Lactating cows require as much as 2/3 more feed than dry, gestating cows — weaning at 205 days will eliminate any abundance of hay.To elaborate further, physiologically at around seven months of age (traditional weaning), we are weaning the calf at a point when its passive immunity acquired via colostrum is at its lowest and active immunity is beginning to ramp up. Therefore, from a health standpoint we are increasing the risk of stress induced illness when weaning calves at “traditional” age.Furthermore, by feeding calves on a higher plane of nutrition earlier in life higher we can accelerate their growth curve. This early growth and energy intake contributes to heavier carcass weights and higher quality grade potential, increasing the value of the calf’s carcass.Can you manage lighter weight calves? In order to be successful in an early weaning system, economics, facilities, and labor need to be considered. Early weaning may not be for everyone, but it can be a useful tool particularly when feed stocks and forage are limited.
It has been a while since I blogged about my first round of Wingnut roof vent testing, so here is a reminder of the questions that the tests should answer: Does soffit-to-ridge cathedral roof air flow actually follow the nice neat arrows that ridge vent manufacturers show in their brochures? Does the configuration of a manufactured ridge vent make a difference in venting effectiveness? Does vent channel depth (the code requires a minimum depth of 1 inch) or roof pitch make a difference in air flow rates? What’s the difference in effectiveness between wind-driven ventilation and stack-effect-driven ventilation? The hiatus in publishing this blog sequel was mainly due to the fact that I had to work out a better approach to generating smoke, to make the testing more realistic at the “eave” and “ridge.” I also had to work out a way to test wind-driven venting. But as you will see below, all of these “improvements” mostly served to convince me that I need to field-verify the findings from my indoor Wingnut testing. The pressure was on, because about two months ago I committed to running a round of Wingnut roof vent testing for a local meeting, the Building Science Guild meeting of the Sustainable Energy Outreach Network (SEON) in late April 2019.RELATED ARTICLESWingnut Testing: Soffit-to-Ridge Roof VentingAll About Attic VentingHow to Build an Insulated Cathedral Ceiling Changes to the test rig and test protocol Here are the changes I made: 1. I bought a theatrical fogger to replace my handheld smoke sticks; see the photo at the top of the page. (There is a wide range of cost between different brands of foggers. Since I could not afford the “Cadillac” model — the Retrotec Tiny S, at $950 — I settled on a Chauvet DJ Hurricane 1000 for $120.) Note how the vertical cardboard simulates the wall under an eave, and the cardboard “visor” simulates the roof overhang at the eave. [Photo credit: Peter Yost, Building-Wright]. 2. I built a cardboard eave “wall” and soffit/overhang; see the photo above. For each pitch, we taped off the “trough” to better simulate the configuration of the space at the ridge of a cathedral roof assembly. [Photo credit: Alan Benoit, architect] 3. I taped over the unrealistic triangular void at the “ridge” — a void which changes shape with each pitch and represents an air space not typical of cathedral roof venting; see the photo above. I also added asphalt shingles above the ridge cap. (Since these shingles extend beyond each ridge vent, they are part of the geometry of vent flow.) 4. I used my Duct Blaster during testing to simulate wind-driven venting. A quick note about types of roof ridge vents There are, of course, a slew of different roof ridge vents (see photo below). I certainly have not tested all, or even most, of them, but I am can break them down into two types: those with vertical-leg baffles that extend well beyond the ridge cap shingles and those without the extended baffles. The five 2-foot length ridge vents shown in the photo are all commonly used by the roofing industry. Two on the left our essentially spacer mesh. The one in the middle is a corrugated vent, and the two on the right are vertical-leg baffle ridge vents. The left-hand three I am categorizing as non-vertical leg (without baffle) and the two on the right are vertical-leg baffled ridge vents. I am making this distinction because ridge vent manufacturers of the former style claim that the vertical-leg baffle is key to enhancing vent flow driven by wind. Round 2 testing results We set up the Wingnut roof vent test rig in the wood shop of the Windham Regional Career Center. (Instructor John DiMatteo is an active member of the Sustainable Energy Outreach Network guild). The first test was a roof assembly with a 3:12 pitch and a 1-inch-high vent space, tested for both stack-effect flow (simulated by heating the roofing with infrared heat lamps) and wind-driven flow (simulated with a Duct Blaster). See the photo at the top of the page, as well as the video below. [Video credit: Alan Benoit, architect] With a low slope, the type of vent or the type of driving force doesn’t matter much. With this low of a slope, there is just not very significant vent flow at the ridge. We do get evidence of vent flow down and out the bottom of the opposite side from the driving forces (wind and stack effect). The second test was a roof assembly with a 10:12 pitch, a vertical-leg baffle type vent, a 1-inch vent space, and with stack effect as the driving force; see the video below. [Video credit: Jon Saccoccio, architect] Pitch makes a big difference, with much more flow from both sides of the ridge vent and much less down and out the opposite slope. The third test was a roof assembly with 10:12 pitch, a 1-inch-deep vent space, stack effect venting, but with a non-vertical leg ridge vent; see the video below. [Video credit: Jon Saccoccio, architect] We get pretty good vent flow up and out the ridge vent but still quite a bit of flow down and out the other slope. The fourth test was a roof assembly with a 10:12 pitch, a 1-inch-deep ventilation space, wind effect ventilation, and a vertical leg ridge vent; see the video below. [Video credit: Jon Saccoccio, architect] We finally get vent flow at the ridge very similar to the arrows most manufacturers show. And note the difference that occurs when we focus the wind effect up on the roof deck as opposed to all the turbulence created when wind hits the “eave” wall and soffit as well. We discovered how hard it is to measure the wind speed along the roof slope; pretty much all we know is that we got the wind pretty similar among our wind-driven tests (with the handheld anemometer reading 3 to 4 miles per hour). The fifth test was a roof assembly with a 10:12 pitch, 1-inch-deep ventilation space, wind effect venting, with a non-vertical leg ridge vent; see the video below. [Video credit: Jon Saccoccio, architect] For whatever reason, the non-vertical leg ridge vent configuration is significantly different from the vertical leg baffle ridge vent. There seems to be much more resistance at the soffit vent opening, and much less air flow, with the non-vertical leg ridge vent. What’s next? Everyone at the Building Science Guild meeting agreed: while the “benchtop” A-frame testing rig has been helpful in teasing out some understanding of the factors that affect soffit-to-ridge vent flow in cathedral roof assemblies, we need to field-verify the indoor testing. So I am hitting the road with my theatrical fogger and a good sturdy extension ladder to a slew of colleagues’ buildings to test soffit-to-ridge cathedral roof assembly air flows in the field, documenting the following conditions while assessing vent flow: Outdoor temperature Solar condition: sunny, partly cloudy, etc. Roof pitch Roof cladding (roofing material) Type of soffit vent Type of ridge vent Wind speed at roof eave above and below the soffit and at the ridge (if I can get to the ridge). Stay tuned for another round of Wingnut ridge vent testing, this time with videos from the field. Call to action You too can be a Wingnut: use the information just above to do your own fieldwork on soffit-t0-ridge vent testing on cathedral roof assemblies and report your results back here in the Comments section of this blog. Together, we can figure this out quite a bit faster than would be possible with just one Wingnut. Peter Yost is GBA’s technical director. He is also the founder of a consulting company in Brattleboro, Vermont, called Building-Wright. He routinely consults on the design and construction of both new homes and retrofit projects. He has been building, researching, teaching, writing, and consulting on high-performance homes for more than twenty years, and he’s been recognized as NAHB Educator of the Year. Do you have a building science puzzle? Contact Pete here.