Climate change will raise the sea level in the Gulf of Finland (Phys.org) —A new study conducted by researchers at the University of Texas’ Center for Space Research, indicates that sea level rise between 2005 and 2011 was due primarily to glacial and polar ice shelf melting. In their paper published in Nature Geoscience, the team describes how they studied data from satellites and ocean surface sensors to measure changes in ocean mass and density which allowed them to calculate an average global sea level rise of nearly 2.4mm/year. © 2013 Phys.org Explore further Global mean sea level (GMSL) change. a, GMSL change observed by the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1/2 satellite altimeters during the period 1993–2012. b, The same as in a, but for the most recent 7-year period (January 2005–December 2011). Credit: (c) NPG, Nature Geoscience (2013) doi:10.1038/ngeo1829 More information: Contribution of ice sheet and mountain glacier melt to recent sea level rise, Nature Geoscience (2013) doi:10.1038/ngeo1829AbstractChanges in global mean sea level primarily reflect the sum of three contributions: water mass changes in the oceans, water density changes, and variations in the volume of the ocean basins. Satellite altimetry data1, 2, 3, 4 suggest that sea level rose by about 2.39±0.48 mm yr−1 between 2005 and 2011. However, previous estimates5, 6, 7, 8, 9 of sea level rise from density and ocean mass changes were lower than the altimeter data indicate. Here we show that the gap in the sea level budget disappears when we combine gravity data from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite mission and temperature and salinity observations from the Argo programme collected between 2005 and 2011. The Argo data indicate a density-driven sea level rise of 0.60±0.27 mm yr−1 throughout this period. To estimate ocean mass change from the gravity data, we developed a forward modelling technique that reduces the bleeding of terrestrial signals into the ocean data. Our reassessment suggests an ocean mass contribution of 1.80±0.47 mm yr−1, for a total sea level rise of 2.40±0.54 mm yr−1, in agreement with the altimeter-based estimates. On the basis of the GRACE data, we conclude that most of the change in ocean mass is caused by the melting of polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers. This contribution of ice melt is larger than previous estimates10, but agrees with reports11, 12, 13 of accelerated ice melt in recent years. The researchers note that sea level changes come about in three main ways: changes in the mass of the water in the ocean, its density, and changes in the volume of ocean basins. To measure all of these over the period 2005 to 2011, the team studied data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and from the Argo project (a global array of 3,500 profiling floats that record ocean temperatures and salinity on an ongoing basis.)Gravity data from GRACE allows researchers to measure the mass of the world’s oceans (divided into six regions) and thus the changes that occur over time. The data showed, the researchers report, a global increase in ocean mass that led to an average ocean level rise of 1.8mm/year during the years studied. They suggest the increase in mass was due to melting of the polar ice sheets and glaciers atop mountains around the globe.In studying data from Argo, the researchers found a reduction in the average density of the world’s oceans led to a rise in sea levels of approximately 0.6mm/year. The researchers did not delve into the nature of the decrease in sea water density, but the presumption is that it’s due to an increase in seawater temperature.To calculate the total average sea level rise over the years studied, the researchers added the rise due to an increase in ocean mass and the rise due to a reduction in average density—this gave them an average global sea level rise of 2.39mm/year. The researchers note their numbers reflect more rise than other studies have found but agree with those that have claimed sea levels are rising at an accelerated rate in more recent years. They also conclude that most of the change in global sea levels is due to melting of polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers. Citation: New study finds sea level rose 2.4 mm/year between 2005 and 2011 (2013, June 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-06-sea-rose-mmyear.html Journal information: Nature Geoscience This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Bajo fuertes medidas de seguridad, la exvicepresidenta Roxana Baldetti fue trasladada a Matamoros. pic.twitter.com/5nqKpvBKXj— Nuestro Diario (@NuestroDiario) August 26, 2015 Prosecutors had told the court that Baldetti allegedly received half of the bribes paid by corrupt businesses in exchange for lower import duties, for a total of $3.8 million between May 2014 and April 2015.One key piece of evidence presented in court was a wiretap recording in which Pérez Molina allegedly rebukes the former head of Guatemala’s Tax Administration, Carlos Muñoz, for taking too long to replace the agency’s director of human resources. Muñoz was one of the top government officials arrested when the customs fraud scandal first made headlines on April 16.According to prosecutors, the director of human resources played a key role in controlling customs offices and facilitating the network’s operations, and was placed at Pérez Molina’s behest.“The human resources guy, we had already talked about the changes, otherwise nothing will work. The labor union says it’s going to start a boycott, so before that happens, … let’s get this done,” Pérez Molina is heard saying on the recordings played in court.“Appoint that Sebastián guy, … but do it now, tomorrow,” Pérez Molina is heard saying. Muñoz replied: “I’ll do it today, Mr. President.”Watch former Vice President Baldetti react as the recorded conversations are played in court: The Lord’s PrayerThroughout the proceedings, Baldetti took notes, and when cameras zoomed in on her notebook, it appeared she had written the Lord’s Prayer several times. Baldetti has been known for her histrionics, such as allegedly pretending to fall down a set of stairs after a previous court hearing and checking into a private hospital after purportedly suffering from a gastrointestinal infection – a gesture that was met with widespread scorn and derision on social media. According to prosecutors, the individual that Pérez Molina refers to as “Sebastián,” and whose appointment he insisted on, is Sebastián Herrera Carrera, arrested along with Muñoz for his alleged involvement in “La Línea.”Baldetti, 53, who wore a dark blue suit and black-rimmed spectacles, appeared shocked to hear Pérez Molina’s voice when the recording was played.Her defense attorney argued that none of the recordings played during the hearing specifically mentioned the former vice president. He also questioned why some of the individuals mentioned in the recordings – such as the former head of the Tax Administration, Claudia Méndez – had not been charged. He claimed the allegations against Baldetti are “politically motivated.” Her decision to cooperate with U.S. authorities in exchange for a reduced sentence has led to rumors that she provided evidence against her former allies, including high-level Guatemalan politicians and members of the business elite.During an interview with the Guatemalan daily Prensa Libre in May 2014, Chacón claimed she met with Baldetti – which the former vice president denied – fueling rumors that U.S. prosecutors could have evidence to prosecute Baldetti on money laundering charges, as reported by a number of local media outlets including El Periódico and Prensa Libre. Guatemalan President Otto Pérez Molina is seen during a private meeting with Interior Minister Eunice Mendizabal and Vice Minister Elmer Sosa at the Interior Ministry building in Guatemala City, on June 11, 2015. Johan Ordóñez/AFPPérez Molina faces a second impeachment hearingOn the same day that evidence of the president’s alleged involvement in “La Línea” was heard in court, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that members of Congress must decide whether Pérez Molina should be stripped of his prosecutorial immunity to face corruption charges, as requested by the U.N.-funded International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG).This is the second attempt to impeach Pérez Molina in the past three months. A previous attempt failed on Aug. 14 after the ruling Patriot Party and opposition Lider party reached an agreement to secure a favorable outcome for the president.On Tuesday, the president and his former associates were involved in yet another scandal after a handwritten document found in the home of Estuardo González, one of the members of “La Línea,” appeared to show that several former Cabinet ministers allegedly contributed large sums of money towards the purchase of a $3.1 million helicopter gifted to Pérez Molina. Those associates include former Minister of Energy and Mining Erick Archila, former Interior Minister Mauricio López Bonilla and former Communications Minister Alejandro Sinibaldi.Archila, López Bonilla and Sinibaldi resigned soon after the “La Línea” scandal broke. Sinibaldi quit as the Patriot Party’s presidential candidate in upcoming elections, throwing the party into a state of disarray.This past weekend, seven more Cabinet ministers resigned. The exodus continued on Monday as Finance Minister Dorval Carías, Infrastructure Minister Víctor Corado and Guatemala’s ambassador to the U.N., Fernando Carrera, added their names to the list of public officials who have fled Pérez Molina’s sinking administration.Read all our coverage of Guatemala’s presidential crisis here Facebook Comments GUATEMALA CITY – Former Vice President Roxana Baldetti was formally charged with illicit association, customs fraud and bribery on Tuesday, just daysafter she was arrested for allegedly helping mastermind a massive customs fraud network known as “La Línea” in tandem with Guatemalan President Otto Pérez Molina.On Wednesday, a judge sentenced her to three months preventive detention and ordered her to be transferred in three days to the Santa Teresa women’s prison in Guatemala City’s Zone 18. Juez ordena prisión preventiva para Roxana Baldetti. Da plazo de 3 días a Sistema Penitenciario para realizar traslado a cárcel Santa Teresa— Organismo Judicial (@OJGuatemala) August 26, 2015 The fact that Baldetti was not handcuffed as she was arrested, and then was sent to the Matamoros military prison in Guatemala City, which has been specially fitted to accommodate other high-profile prisoners, also provoked ire.After she was formally charged by Judge Miguel Ángel Gálvez, Baldetti breathed heavily, blinked repeatedly and appeared to be on the verge of tears.Will the US request Baldetti’s extradition?Since Baldetti was forced to step down on May 8, she was banned from traveling, her assets, as well as those of her husband, have been frozen, and her U.S. visa has been revoked.In recent weeks, rumors that the U.S. is preparing to demand her extradition to face money-laundering charges there also have intensified.On May 5, Judge José Martínez of the U.S. District Court of Southern Florida sentenced notorious money launderer Marllory Chacón Rosell, known as “La Reina del Sur” (“The Queen of the South,” after the protagonist of a novel by Spanish author Arturo Pérez Reverte about a female drug kingpin) to an undisclosed prison term. The sentencing was placed under seal for five years, due to the sensitivity of the case.Chacón, who ran a drug trafficking organization in Guatemala that also operated in Panama and Honduras and supplied thousands of kilograms of cocaine per month to Mexican drug cartels, was identified by the U.S. Treasury Department as Guatemala’s “most active money launderer.” LO ÚLTIMO | Capturada ex vicepresidenta Roxana #Baldetti, sindicada por ters delitos ► http://t.co/WoUyK49Fz6 pic.twitter.com/s5Jq8B2v6S— Prensa Libre (@prensa_libre) August 21, 2015 Sentencian en EU a la narcotraficante guatemalteca Marllory Chacón Rosell, mejor conocida como #LaReinaDelSur. pic.twitter.com/R04JUp19K6— EL INFORMANTE (@ElInformanteMX) May 5, 2015 Related posts:Q&A: Nobel laureate Rigoberta Menchú hails Guatemala’s ‘great awakening’ Guatemala’s Pérez Molina resigns after judge orders him to face corruption charges Guatemalan legislative commission recommends lifting President Pérez Molina’s immunity Guatemala’s Pérez Molina says he’s ‘calm’ as impeachment storm swirls around him
Go back to the e-newsletterHaving revolutionised the ‘typical Maldives resort’ concept with 2014’s game-changing launch of Amilla Fushi, The Small Maldives Island Co. looks set to confound expectations once again with the opening of sister resort Finolhu in mid-2016. To celebrate the soon-to-open property, the new Resort Manager, Rochelle Kilgariff, visited Sydney and invited media guests to a sumptuous lunch at Regatta Rose Bay on Friday 12 February.Over lunch of sashimi cones and savoury cigars, Ms Kilgariff described what guests can expect at Finolhu. The new resort is set to bring a timeless sense of style to the pristine lagoons and rich waters of the Maldives’ Baa Atoll, taking the form of a retro-inspired island paradise for fun-loving jetsetters.Located in the UNESCO World Biosphere that is the Baa Atoll (just 30 minutes by speedboat from sister resort, Amilla Fushi), Finolhu is an island experience for couples, fun-loving families and gathering of friends. There are seven villa types to choose from – over water or on the beach, one or two bedroom, with or without pool – all eclectically furnished with Marshall speakers and blue bottles of organic skin and body products from UK brand, Neal’s Yard Remedies.Collaborating once again with Island Restaurateur, Luke Mangan, Finolhu will be home to laid-back yet elegant dining options: Salt Grill is all about contemporary Australian cuisine; the Fish & Crab Shack is a relaxed nod to seaside food stalls; Baa Bar and Dining offers the simplicity of bold flavours served under the stars and accompanied by an extensive wine library; and Kanusan showcases the innovative flavours of Asian cuisines.Centred around a hub of pastel-coloured beach huts, Finolhu’s The Cove will be a stripped-back spa concept, offering a calm haven with eight chandelier-lit treatment ‘Divans’, complemented by a fitness centre, yoga pavilion and outdoor ‘jungle gym’. The island’s natural environment is the inspiration for fitness activities at The Cove, from capoeira and paddleboarding to ballet and kickboxing, while the facilities will also include a relaxation area overlooking the beach, steam/sauna, wellness areas, salon and retail pavilion.Finolhu’s Marine Hub is home to a variety of water sports and the dive centre, as well as the Oceaneers Club for tots to teens. For a go-slow beach vibe, guests can while away the days at the Baa Baa Beach Club, lazing and grazing on finger food, beers or cocktails.Go back to the e-newsletter